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Psychographic Study of Filipino Voter Behavior

Geographical Scope: 
The Psychographics study on voting behavior of the Filipino electorate was conducted by the Institute for Political and Electoral Reform to understand the attitude of the voter in selecting their candidates.
This was done within the context of their understanding of and practice of their right of suffrage. This study was initially done in 1995 to help identify the reforms needed in electoral and political system.
In 2003 an update of the same study was done in time for the May 2004 Presidential election. This book tackles the five areas of concern in election namely the attitude of the voters' in choosing a candidate, the voters' knowledge in election laws and procedure, the voters' view on election fraud and malpractices and the voters' views on the electoral system.
In particular, this research aims to:
  1. re-evaluate the basic premises often used in analyzing voters' behavior by probing into the minds of the electorate through the use of a quantitative research technique (i.e. survey)
  2. evaluate the existing electoral system to identify specific reforms needed in the electoral process
  3. provide a framework for the development of policies in electoral reforms based on the experience of the grassroots
This study is designed to provide a solid basis for proposals on electoral reforms. The Institute hopes it will thus serve to strengthen our fledging restored democracy.

The Voter's Choice: Myself . A Psychographic Study on Voting Behavior of the Filipino Electorate IPER office; published in 2004.

Cost (specify currency): 
20 000 USD
Funding sources: 
United Nations Development Programme
Source of Data: 
Own source of data
Type of Data Collection: 
Aggregation of multiple indicators using various d...
Focus groups
In depth interviews
Panel of experts
Random sample population survey
Specifications of type of data collection: 
We used a multi-stage stratified random sampling procedure to identify the respondents from the target municipalities and cities in the survey.
Stratification is the process of grouping members of the population into relatively homogenous subgroups before sampling. The municipalities and cities were used as strata whose number of samples was determined on the basis of the voter population of the municipality or city.
Several factors were considered in the stratification:
  1. importance of the area in national politics
  2. significance of PO/NGO work
  3. size of the population
  4. level of its economic and social development
Thus, the study has sample municipalities and cities that are highly urbanized as well as highly rural; municipalities with a history of open, legal people's struggle and a history of armed revolutionary struggle; areas that are warlord-dominated and areas where governance is relatively liberal; and Christian as well as Muslim-dominated areas.
The 2003 study was conducted in the same sixteen municipalities and cities that were used as samples in the 1995 study. There were 1003 respondents. The margin of error is 5%. Key informants in each municipality include candidates, campaign managers, ward leaders, precinct watchers, Comelec officials, citizen's watchdogs, academics, and political analysts, among others. Ten key informants per municipality were chosen for the 1995 study while five informants per area were assigned to the 2003 study.
Measurement Methods / Tools Generated or Used : 
Interview schedule:
The interview schedule or the survey questionnaire is divided into five parts:
  1. profile/personal background of the respondent
  2. what determines their vote
  3. their opinion on the conduct of the electoral process, i.e., from voter registration to counting of votes
  4. their opinion on electoral fraud
  5. their knowledge and opinion of electoral laws and reform measures
There are 53 variables in all. The survey focused not only on the demographic characteristics of the Filipino electorate but also on the more abstract aspects of voters' attitudes and opinions.
Key Informant Guide:
The in-depth interview of key informants, on the other hand, was conducted not only to validate the quantitative aspect of the research but more to gain insights and deeper understanding of voter behavior. The key informant interview guide is made up of four broad topics which center on the following topics:
  1. Determinants of vote
  2. Views on the general attitude of the electorate towards election and politics
  3. Views on electoral fraud
  4. Views on the intervention of various groups in the electoral process
  5. Views on the role of parties, coalitions and party system.
The focus of the key informant interview was on how past electoral exercises were conducted in the municipality, their appraisal of the attitudes of voters towards elections and the candidates, on the strength and flaws of the electoral laws and on their recommendations for electoral reforms. Cases studies were carried out to draw some lessons from the participation of some people's organizations and non-governmental organizations in past elections.
Data Collection and Analysis:
Data collection covered a two-month period. Questionnaires were sent to each area through coordinators who were in charge of identifying the sample respondents, distribution and retrieval of questionnaires. Survey enumerators were assigned to interview the respondents and record their responses.
Interviews took an average of one hour per respondent. For the key informant interviews, five interviewees were identified in each of the sixteen areas. Interviewers were also assigned to ask questions and record the proceedings on tape, which were then transcribed and encoded.
Survey responses were processed and a computerized database was created. The data were then subjected to various statistical measures using the SAS and for the 1995 study, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences or SPSS was used. The responses for the survey are quantified using factor analysis and other statistical measures using the SAS statistical program. The key informant interview results were encoded in a matrix and were collated to describe the various views of the interviewees on the issues or questions posed.
List of Indicators: 
Voter profile:
  1. Age
  2. Sex and civil status
  3. Income
  4. Educational attainment
  5. Religion
  6. Language
  7. Regional location
  8. Participation in elections
  9. Determination of voter preference: Based on ranking from 1-5 (1 highest) of 18 factors affecting voter preference; utilizing factor analysis methods.
  10. Knowledge of electoral laws: Percentage ratio of YES to NO Knowledge of electoral procedures: Percentage ranking from VERY ORDERLY to VERY DISORDERLY
  11. Knowledge and attitude regarding electoral fraud and malpractices: Percentage ranking from COMMON PRACTICE to SHOULD NOT BE TOLERATED
Main Users: 
Policy makers